Sunday, March 22, 2020

Thirty Years War Essays - Anti-Catholicism, , Term Papers

Thirty Years War The causes of the Thirty Years War can be traced as far back as the renaissance period. It was during the renaissance that such ideals as secularism, humanism, individualism, rationalism and above all else secularism were first apparent in main stream society. These ideas led to the protestant reformation, which is an even more direct cause of the war. The split of the Catholic Church, as a result of the protestant reformation left Europe in a state of religious turmoil and chaos. The gradual increase in intolerance and religious sectionalism that coincided with the addition of new religions and even more diversity has been marked as the main cause of the Thirty Years War. The effects of the war would prove to be devastating to most of Europe, evidenced by the sharp drop in population, but it was especially devastating to Germany. However, there were some countries and bodies of people that emerged from the conflict improved such as France, Sweden, and the religion of Calvinism. There were many territorial and dynastic issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war as well, but it is believed that these factors did not become important until the middle stages of the war. The territorial and dynastic causes, which go hand in hand, did however, cause the war to continue longer than it most likely would have if religion had been the only motive. The extent of religious motives therefor is debated, but cannot be dismissed. The immediate causes of the war began with the resistance and eventual revolt of Protestant nobles in Bohemia, due to the religious intolerance mentioned before, which was under Hapsburg domination, against the Catholic king Ferdinand. The reasons and causes for its spread throughout Europe include the constitutional frailty of the Holy Roman Empire, the inability of the German states to act in concert, and the ambitions of other European powers. These were the causes that would eventually be responsible for the war lasting as long as it did. The political motives became more and more prevalent when Sweden entered the war to help the Protestant cause. Sweden did not enter the war for religious reasons at all; they were looking to gain land. Finally it seemed that religion was completely forgotten and abandoned as a cause when Catholic France and Protestant Sweden joined forces against the Catholic Hapsburgs. France was worried that the Hapsburgs were becoming too powerful so they decided to assert their influence into the war. The results and effects of the war and the two peace treaties were highly significant. France replaced Spain as the greatest power in Europe. With Sweden, France had blocked the Habsburg efforts to strengthen their authority in the Empire. At Westphalia, the right of the individual states within the Empire to make war and conclude alliances was recognized. In theory as well as in fact, the most important of these states became virtually autonomous, and German unity was postponed for more than two centuries. The Empire was further dismembered by the recognition of the independence of Switzerland and the seven northern provinces of the Netherlands. Two new powers emerged in northern Germany. France received most of Alsace by the Treaty of Westphalia, and by the Treaty of Pyrenees parts of Flanders and Artois in the Spanish Netherlands and lands in the Pyrenees. The religious settlement at Westphalia confirmed the predominance of Catholicism in southern Germany and of Protestantism in northern Germany. The principle accepted by the Peace of Augsburg of 1555 that Catholic and Lutheran princes could determine the religion practiced in their territory was maintained, and this privilege was extended to include the Calvinists as well. The Austrian Habsburgs had failed in their efforts to increase their authority in the Empire and to eradicate Protestantism, but they emerged from the war stronger than before. In Bohemia, they had stamped out Protestantism, broken the power of the old nobility, and declared the crown hereditary in the male line of their family. With Bohemia now firmly in their grasp and with their large group of adjoining territories, they were ready to expand to the east in the Balkans, to the south in Italy, or to interfere once more in the

Thursday, March 5, 2020

How to Start a College Essay

How to Start a College Essay People perceive college life to be exciting and fun since there is much association and friendliness from students. In most cases, students tend to procrastinate doing their weekend take-home assignments. They go partying and in any other funfair activities forgetting that the weekend is only two days. It requires proper preparation to do a top-notch college essay. Starting early is therefore one of the strategies students should implement when they wish to do their college essays. The more time one has, the lesser the stress associated with deadlines. Nowadays most college professors prefer to have assignments through their e-mails. This feature allows professors to check time in which students uploaded their papers. Having plenty of time prepares one to give the essay his/her best effort. Starting a breathtaking college essay requires to think about what interest him/her. Writing an essay necessitates one to take a moment and remember what he/she loves to talk about, what makes the student to be attentive in class or focus on the TV and so on. It is a big mistake to write about what you think might interest the professor. Though writing an essay prompts one to acknowledge the target audience, it is of the essence to write about an issue, a person or event that has significance in your life. Students should remember that writing a boring essay will also be boring to read. It is important to be honest while writing an essay. Examiners have read several essay and have masters at discovering any small instance of plagiarism. In college, plagiarism is a big issue and may lead to one being discontinued from learning. Students who find it difficult to do college essays can as well order for them online from freelance writing institutions. It is worth to take risks while writing college essays. Settling for an essay topic that everybody is writing about can be dangerous. You can imagine if there are 50 students from your class and professor is still burning the midnight oil trying to assess your essays. If he/she has read 10 topics of the same theme, the professor will immediately doze off because it will be now monotonous. The danger in writing college essays does not lie in writing bad essays but in writing common essays. Take time and ask friends about essay topics they are writing about, it saves a lot.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Controls Tmobile Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Controls Tmobile - Essay Example T-Mobile, however, is part of a very dynamic technology market where both of these strategies are important in staying competitive as other companies constantly evolve their tactics. According to Miller, et al. â€Å"Organizational environments differ in their degree of instability or turbulence, thereby creating very different contexts for adaptation† (Miller et al., 1998). In short, this means that a company in stable economic times with few competitors or other outside pressures will adapt by making small modifications to its approach to strategic planning, but when faced with major outside forces it will certainly make quick assessments and implementation of change in order to compete. Because dynamic business markets means constant change and high competition, T-Mobile is much more likely than companies in other industries to use strategic plans that involve quick reaction to change on the operational level. While this often works to the benefit of the company there are drawbacks. Organizations in stable environments are more likely to employ strategic objectives that maintain the status quo and may keep the business headed in a positive direction for longer periods of time with little fluctuation. In the United States, T-Mobile and many of the major players in the telecommunications industry have responded to government deregulation by becoming more dynamic, perhaps at the price of long-term stability in the market. In order to excel, T-Mobile uses the strategy of employing dynamic change to deliver new products and services in dynamic, constantly evolving ways. At T-Mobile, the operational levels closely match the goals of the company’s dynamic plan, demonstrating its strength. The company employs the ‘better-faster-cheaper’ mantra, and quickly changes pace to meet evolving customer expectations with innovative new products and services, evidencing the quick response of the company to outside pressures. For instance, in advertising the new

Monday, February 3, 2020

Keynesian Theory of Inflation and Unemployment Essay

Keynesian Theory of Inflation and Unemployment - Essay Example Inflation, on the other hand, referrers increase in prices of products and services in any given economy, with a particular period duration. Essentially, when prices are high, amount of goods and services, which can be, bought using a particular amount of money becomes fewer (Burda & Wyplosz 1997). Disequilibrium positions of inflation Keynes disagrees with the economists of the classical argument. According to the argument by Keynes, market systems do not lead to automatic full-employment equilibrium (Warburton 1966). However, the economic systems could attain equilibrium at any range of unemployment. This implied that the interventionists’ policies would not apply. Keynesian argument can be represented in a circular flow of revenue (Warburton 1966). Extra aggregate demand within the economic system forces firms to absorb more employees. According to Keynes, markets are bound to exhibit disequilibrium of various forms (positions) of inflation, which have been pointed in the K eynesian theory of inflation. ... Similarly, aggregate supply can be indicated by Y = C + S because the market value of the total p[roduction of one year is called national income may be divided into consumption and saving. In this way, national income will be determined at the point where following conditions will be fulfilled; aggregate demand = aggregate supply; total expenditure = total income; C + I = C + S; I = S. This can be explained by the help of the following diagram: In the above diagram, along X-axis we have measured national income and employment level and along Y-axis consumption and investment. C curve is consumption curve which moves from left to right upwards. The assumption is that investment remains the same at all levels of income, so C + I curve will remain parallel to C.C + I curve indicates aggregate demand or the total expenditure at different levels of income. The income will be in equilibrium at the point where C intersects Y. in other words, aggregate demand is equal to aggregate supply or total expenditure is equal to total income when income is OM. From the point where Y and M intersect, to M, gives the effective demand since at this point, aggregate supply is equal to aggregate demand. If income is higher than OM, aggregate supply will be greater than aggregate demand and there will be overproduction. The profits of the producers will fall and they will produce less in the next year, so income will decrease. Similarly, if income is lower than OM, aggregate demand will be greater than aggregate supply and it will be profitable to produce more and more and as a result of this, income will increase. In this way, income will be determined at OM and this is the

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Korsgaards Position About Lying To The Murderer

Korsgaards Position About Lying To The Murderer In this paper I will discuss Christine M. Korsgaards position about lying to the murderer at the door in response to Immanuel Kants view regarding the matter. I will then give two objections to her view and explain why I dont find her account to be very persuasive. Then, I will argue why I believe that lying to the murderer at the door is permissible in my opinion. I will start off by explaining Kants view. Kant believes that his moral theory forbids lying under all possible circumstances, even those where there is a murderer at the door wondering if an innocent victim is hiding in your house. After all, if everybody lied, even just to murderers at the door enquiring about the whereabouts of their victims, then the lying could not succeed since no murderer would believe what one says, and therefore lying violates the first form of the Categorical Imperative, which Kant calls the Formula of Universal Law. Similarly, the lie violates the second form of the Categorical Imperative, which Kant names the Formula of Humanity. The lie fails to respect the rationality of the murderer, since by lying we manipulate the murderer into actions directed at our own intensions and ends. Since the liars end is opposed to the end that the murderer has willingly chosen for themselves, the liar fails to treat the murderer with respect and dignity and therefore trea ts the murderer merely as a means to get what they want. Lying even in such an extreme case as the murderer at the door is a Imperfection violation of the Categorical Imperatives according to Kant. Korsgaard goes against Kants assertion that it is wrong to give the murderer at the door the wrong answer arguing that it does not violate the Categorical Imperatives to lie in these circumstances. She further discusses that it is a duty to lie to the murderer at the door and expands on her reasoning. Korsgaard comes up with a two level theory on which the first form of the Categorical Imperative would apply under all circumstances and the second only when one is defending oneself or another against evil. In order to defend Kants first Categorical Imperative, Korsgaard argues that it is in fact permissible from a Kantian point of view to universalize the maxim, or principle that governs action, when lying to the murderer at the door. She argues that the first form of the Categorical Imperative is not violated in the case where the murderer makes a secret of their murderous intensions. She explains that if the murderer at the door does not know that the recipient knows they are murderers, that the murderer will think that the recipient will believe that they are just a friendly neighbor trying to find out where their friend is for example. In other words, she believes you can universalize a maxim in which you respond to evil with an effort to frustrate evil through deception, where the evil person is unaware that you are aware of his plan. The evil person, or murderer, does not realize that you are in the position in which you would use this maxim; therefore you would be able to use th is without frustrating your purpose to successfully get away with your lie. Imperfection In order to defend Kants second Categorical Imperative, which explains that we must respect each others rational nature by always treating others with respect and dignity and never merely as a means, Korsgaard argues that it is permissible to not abide by this formula due to the fact that the murderer is not respecting your rational nature by lying to you in the first place. Korsgaard argues that we are permitted and also have a duty to mutual aid one another and lie to the murderer at the door out of self-defense. She believes that in order to protect yourself you may respond to a lie with a lie. The murderer is not offering you the grounds to consent to his activity with him, so Korsgaard believes that you are not obliged in response to offer transparency. Part of her argument is that you are being lied to, and you have a duty of self-respect, not to allow yourself to be used as a tool for evil. Korsgaard explains that this makes it possible to lie back to the murderer. She also ma kes a point that we must protect one another, especially if the person you are protecting is innocent. Korsgaard also believes this in this case you would not be abusing communication by the lie. Korsgaard relates more with the non-ideal Kantian view versus the ideal Kantian view in which Kant takes. Ideal Kantian theory is how we are permitted and obliged to behave if we lived in a society where we all followed the rules and we were of good will and good faith. This theory explains how flawed and imperfect but good human beings would be required to behave in respect to one another. Non-ideal Kantian theory on the other hand is relevantly different. It explains how we are required to behave when many of us are of good will but Imperfection many of us are also not of good will. Korsgaard relates non-ideal Kantian theory to this case, the murderer is not acting on a good will. She believes that in non-ideal circumstances we have justifications for treating each other in such ways that we wouldnt treat each other in ideal circumstances. Although I think Korsgaard has made some interesting claims, I believe her arguments have not been fully persuasive. My first objection to Korsgaards argument is that I believe she misunderstands how Kantian universalization is supposed to work. Korsgaards account will not defend Kant successfully because it only works under certain circumstances. This is Korsgaards main flaw in her assertion Universalization does not work when the murderer is transparent about their evil intensions. Korsgaards argument only works when the murderer does not know that you know of their intensions. Lying maxims fail to be universalized when both parties know the situations they are in causing a major gap in Korsgaards argument. I believe that regardless of whether you can universalize lying to a murderer, it should almost always be permissible to do so in order to save a life. For example, if you were hiding Ann Frank in your basement and the Nazi Police came to your door and asked you if you were hiding any Jews, you would have to tell the Nazis the truth under Korsgaards universalization claim. The Nazis know that everybody knows of their murderous intentions, so they know that you know that they will kill Ann Frank if you told them where she was hiding, therefore the Nazis will know that you will lie to them in order to save her life. So you will not Imperfection be able to universalize this maxim and get away with lying in this particular situation. This example proves that Korsgaards assertion is in very weak, since it only works under a certain scenario. After discussing this material with my partner, Corine Machalani, we went over some objections that Korsgaard might offer to this assertion. I believe Korsgaard would argue against this claim by stating that in a scenario where the murderer is not trying to deceive, the only thing you could do is refuse to answer his question. This is absolutely ridiculous because I think if you told a murderer that you would be putting your life in danger. By telling someone that you are not going to tell him, you have practically admit that you are hiding something from them. So in the case of the murderer you are admitting that you know the whereabouts of their victim but refuse to tell them. This would be a very dangerous situation that I would altogether try and avoid. When dealing with an evil person such as a murderer, you must protect your life. I believe lying to the murderer at the door is permissible out of self-protection and because it is the morally right thing to do. You know that by hiding Jews in your house you are breaking the law, so in order to protect yourself against the Nazis you should be allowed to lie out of self-defense. Even where the Nazis tell you that if you tell them the truth that you will be rewarded instead of personally prosecuted or injured, I still believe you should lie. You should help one another and to protect an innocent persons life because it is the right thing Imperfection to do. Life is the most precious thing and should be guarded in any way possible, whether your life or another individuals. Although I believe Korsgaard has made a good point regarding the duty to aid an innocent person against evil, I believe some of her reasoning is incorrect. Korsgaards argues that if someone lies to you, you can lie back to them. Korsgaard argues that since the murderer is lying to you about their motives, you may respond to a lie with a lie. I believe this is not a strong argument. A lie is an intentional invitation of trust and a breaking of faith, and the fact that the murderer is lying to you doesnt justify you lying to them back, and it definitely is not a reason that makes lying moral in any way. My reasoning regarding this matter is the eye for an eye argument, I believe two wrongs dont make it right. Just because someone lies to you doesnt make it right to lie back, and if our world operated this way there would be nothing but chaos. I believe when deciding whether lying is right or wrong, it all comes down to the intensions of the parties involved. The Nazis have evil intensions of murdering innocent people for no reason, and you have good intensions of protecting yourself and others. Even though in Germany back in those days it was the law to hand over the Jews, that society was corrupt and flawed. The only time I would argue that it is permissible not to lie to the murderer at the door would be if the person you were hiding in your house were also a murderer. I believe lying is acceptable when saving an innocent life. Korsgaard has not successfully justified in pointing to Kants view of lying Imperfection as a refutation of the Categorical Imperatives. I believe a Kantian needs to bite the bullet and agree that there are some serious flaws in their argument. There are lies that Kantians believe are impermissible even though such lies are actually a duty in my eyes. Korsgaard has not successfully proven that Kants Categorical Imperatives actually work in difficult situations concluding that her argument is not very strong.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Marketing Changing Essay

Along with the changing business world, customers change as well, becoming more demanding and knowledgeable than before. In turn, company management had shifted their focus on their clients or customers so as to stay successfully in business. This transition meant that Estee Lauder have to completely reformulate their conventional business aims and purposes from being process-focused to customer-centred. Rethinking and reformulating the organization on the other hand, entail the consideration of several factors such as various processes, technology, the environment as well as the success factors of people (Cohen and Moore, 2000). Hence, in order to bring out exceptional customer services within the company operations, the management should employ fine-tuned organizational restructuring. Moreover, employing proactive customer commitment involves the consideration on culture and infrastructure (Lowenstein, 1997).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The creation or formulation of a marketing communication plan is essential for all industries. In most cases, communication is necessary to mobilize support, remove uncertainty, establish acceptance, and most importantly, reduce the risks. Oftentimes, the implementation of marketing communication strategy through for example, new product or new initiative, requires enormous allocations for both staff and financial resources. Hence, all efforts and resources must not go to waste; they must all be directed towards the objective of the company (Neumann and Sumser, 2002). Several disadvantages can be obtained due to inadequate planning of the marketing communication strategy. For instance, it could lead to productivity losses, including loss of both existing and new staff and economic loss. The absence of a marketing communication plan may also lead to false starts and personal losses, which can occur as stakeholders become frustrated and disappointed over the general mission (Neumann and Sumser, 2002). On the bright side, these losses are avoidable. In support of the creation of a marketing communication plan, Shimp (2003) had noted that the efficacy of marketing communication lies on four major aspects. These aspects state that marketing communication should be clearly positioned; directed to a particular target market, created to achieve a specific objective; and undertaken to accomplish the objective within the budget constraint. According to Byron in 2006, Estee Lauder debuted its first-ever online campaign for its flagship brand, with ads promoting its newest anti-aging product, Advanced Night Repair Concentrate. The campaign includes a dedicated site at, advertisements on blogs and a sponsored site called `Night Spa.` The company declined to quantify the cost, although it said the online budget was coming out of money normally spent on traditional media. Està ©e Lauder spent about $60 million advertising its namesake brand last year, according to a person familiar with the matter. Under the marketing plan, clear positioning is identified through the determination of the Estee Lauder’s Advanced Night Repair Concentrate, its image to the customers as well as its competitors. In terms, of market communications, these aspects are also related. Marketing communication must be clearly positioned in such a way that its objective and strategy places the product over all other competitors. An advertisement for instance, must be able to stand out to the consumers so as gain a stronger foothold within the market. Popular commercial statements for instance, also create clear positioning out of marketing communication. Estee Lauder for example is known for its main mission, which states that the company’s purpose is to create value for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty. Through this popular slogan, Estee Lauder clearly positions itself in most retailers that provide everything the customer needs so as to gain their patronage.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   By means of studying the competitors, Estee Lauder can apply a marketing communication strategy that will clearly position its product to the target market. This aspect of marketing communication can be explained further by understanding customer relationship management. By establishing good relations with the company’s customers, clear positioning of marketing communications can be attained. The implementation of customer relationship management (CRM) through the comprehensive approach can provide the company considerable competitive advantage. This aspect is very much essential to this time considering that most services or products offered by companies have certain similarities (Lowenstein, 1997). Strategy perhaps, is the most important key to the successful implementation of customer relationship management. In order to do so, company management must realize that, either directly or indirectly, the achievement of its goals contributes much to the customers’ or clients’ general experience with the company. Successful incorporation of people, process and technology is probably the most efficient strategy in CRM implementation. This system begins with the purposeful and dedicated alignment of the processes employed by the management. These include the planning, organizing, directing and controlling procedures, which are all geared towards the customers (Cohen and Moore, 2000). Thus, customer management relationship, also referred to as customer service management, encompasses more than the attainment of customer satisfaction. This change management is a balance between enhanced company processes and renewed objectives. In other words, customers should also feel that the companies and businesses they support and patronize give due importance, essentiality and vitality to their operations (Cohen and Moore, 2000).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Marketing communication must be created to achieve specific objectives. Upon the identification of the target market, the company must then formulate the message it wants to relay to its audience. This is also referred to as the company’s value proposition. The creation of the objectives of marketing communication is important so as to cause an impact or effect to the each member of the target audience in spite of the extensive communication noise (Neumann and Sumser, 2002). In a way, the identification of the objectives will help the company come up with communication methods that will it stand out or different from the rest. The consumers need to understand fully how the communication message will affect them. If it is a relevant message, and they are able to decipher its effect on them, the company will be able to successfully communicate the message.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The objectives of marketing communication are interconnected with the activities the company can apply for effective communication as well as its target market. For instance, the company aims to improve and broaden its services to its customers. In order to do this, the company applied a strategy through the use of the internet. Considering that some customers are working on the field, this strategy will only work for customers who work on online environments. Hence, the company must apply a marketing communication strategy that is applicable for all targets. In addition to the consideration of the total target market, each individual must be exposed to the company’s message several times so as to establish a stronger connection. This can be achieved through the use of several strategies such as the conduction of various events, online marketing, direct mail or advertising.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Basically, the objectives of companies for employing marketing communication are concentrated on the enhancement of customer services, augmentation of market coverage, increased company profit or introduction of a new product or services. In order to achieve these objectives, companies apply various forms of strategies. The tremendous growth of technological advancement has become the driving force of contemporary industries.   The diffusion of the internet has revolutionized the business arena.   The use of the Internet is changing high-tech marketing overnight while different industries have been trying to use it as part of their marketing strategy. It has not only reconfigured the way different firms do business and the way the consumers buy goods and services, but it has also become an effective instrument in transforming the value chain from manufacturers to retailers to consumers, creating a new retail distribution channel (Donthu and Garcia, 1999).   E-marketing is a powerful tool used by different business organizations around the world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   E-marketing is also known to be the online marketing strategy utilized by different company whose objective is to be the best company in their field.   In various countries worldwide, more and more business firms have been using e-marketing strategy in order to be competitive.   From books, foods and beverages, automobiles and other products and services, various firms, irregardless of their company sizes, are trying to survive by means of e-marketing strategy.   Aside from being a promotional medium, the internet is a tool for marketing communications as well. Due to its interactive nature, the internet is an efficient method used in communicating with the consumers. Hence, several companies are beginning to realize the advantages of using the internet as a tool for communication. Companies then started to concentrate on designing web-related strategies and employing interactive agencies that will facilitate their development of specific company web sites as part of their integrated marketing communication strategy. There are companies however, that are effectively using the internet by incorporating their web-related strategies with the other areas of their IMC strategies. The approach now becomes integrated and more strategic. On-line marketing is considered to be the most expensive yet seems to be the most comprehensive marketing strategy that every company wants to implement and apply. At present, people, particularly those in the business arena, tend to engage themselves within the trend of rapidly growing technology so as to stay competitive. Upon surfing the internet, various companies have put up their official sites online for customers and potential consumers to view. Online or e-marketing is the latest marketing approach for any firm who wants to effectively market its products and services. In addition, e-marketing enables the company to be known worldwide since more and more people are able to access information derived from the internet.   Within the business world, where competition is strict, internet marketing is one essential marketing strategy applied by most industries. Marketing is indeed a complex combination of several factors. Within the concept of effective marketing communication, an effective plan must involve clear positioning, identification of the target market, establishment of specific objectives and strategy implementation within budgetary constraints. In order to successfully apply marketing communications, companies must be able to integrate all these factors, such as the ones exemplified by Estee Lauder to its retailers. References Cohen, S. & Moore, J. (2002). Today’s Buzzword: CRM. Public Management, 82 (4), 10. Donthu, N. & Garcia, A. (1999). The Internet shopper. Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (3), 52-58. Lowenstein, M.W. (1997). The Customer Loyalty Pyramid. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Neumann, E. & Sumser, R. (2002). Marketing Communications: A Vital Element of Achieving Change. The Public Manager, 31 (4), 9+. Shimp, T.A. (2003). Advertising, Promotion, & Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communication. Sixth Edition. Southwestern: Thompson.   

Friday, January 10, 2020

Lamb to the Slaughter Essay

Rohal Dahl’s short story, ‘Lamb to the Slaughter’, set in the early 20th century, isn’t your typical crime-fiction story, a murder is brewing. As the detectives strive for answers, eating away their only clue, Dahl communicates to the reader that the contrast is unexpected. A housewife, Mary Maloney, is expecting her husband home after a long day at work; unaware to the news he carries with him. Dahl never reveals the news to the readers, but gives them clues by Mary’s reactions. As the author continues the story, the readers sense a mood between Mr. and Mrs. Maloney. This serves the purpose of foreshadowing by hinting at a future problem or disagreement. Dahl uses several writing techniques such as language style, characterization, point of view, plot structure and setting to make the story more exciting and enjoyable. Lamb to the Slaughter, is written in their person to take most of the character’s personal feelings out of the story. Writing in third person is a stronger, more forceful type of writing because the main points and events stand out them selves without feelings getting in the way. One of the reasons authors write in third person is to dis-include themselves from the story. By using words like they, she and he, Dahl has excluded both himself and the reader from the story, creating a stronger, more enjoyable story. The first character introduced in the novel is Mary Maloney. Because it is only a short story, Dahl has left most of the physical features of the character out and focused more in the idiosyncrasies and actions of each character. Along the way Mary’s features are described but not in dept. Another way characters are revealed is by the way others react to them and how much emotion each character puts in their speech. Dahl has made sure that the readers feel intrigued by Mrs. Maloney’s character and how she changes from such an innocent woman to an emotionless murderer.